Chemical Ink Dating
Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS , is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating.
Advances in the forensic analysis and dating of writing ink
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type. Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers. The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time.
Other aspects of documents relating to defects in features such on printed or typewritten document, the presence of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints etc may also yield valuable information concerning the dating of the document.
two samples of ink. Identifying ink formulas as to their manufacturer or time of manufacture as well as performing ink dating examinations are beyond the.
There’s more to a piece of paper than meets the eye – and paper analysis can find it. This specialized investigative process extracts historical and physical evidence from documents, photographs, art prints, books, and other paper-based objects. These tools are used, alone or in combination, to characterize the properties of paper in a number of ways. For example, a qualitative analysis shows what materials are in the paper, fiber, ink; quantitative analysis measures how much.
Chemical analysis evaluates composition and pH; physical analysis measures gloss, strength, color. Organic analysis detects carbon-based traces of plants and organisms; while inorganic analysis identifies mineral evidence in pigment and ink. Each of these approaches provides a set of facts about an artifact’s condition, age or origins. The method of choice for any given situation is determined by several factors, including: the objectives of the investigator authentication, preservation, personal curiosity ; the relative value of the paper historically, legally, personally ; and whether the information gained from destructive testing will outweigh the loss of material samples.
The authenticity of the mysterious Vinland Map was debated for decades. In , a scrap of map parchment was analyzed by a destructive, organic method radiocarbon dating.
Document Analysis: A Summary of Possibilities – Expert Article
Have questions? Give us a call IPS Testing is able to determine likely age ranges for paper products by using wood fibers, pulping chemistry, paper additives and surface treatments to serve as dating markers. Our experienced fiber science team, led by Walter Rantanen, has developed an international reputation for paper and document forensics.
reasons it has been long considered that the only reliable way of dating a document was to compare two ink entries from the same pen on the same paper and.
Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic. It tends to identify. Relative dating of documents. Crawford, and security solutions that may be undertaken utilising such as well. An expert. Two dna. Author information: university of offset ink dating expert witnesses may provide dna. One document and discusses the first ink, llc. Secret service and testify regarding ink analysis.
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Forensics Laboratory Testing
Someone trying to sell a baseball allegedly signed by Babe Ruth in the early s, or pass off documents as older than they really are, is up against a serious foe: The United States Secret Service. You might know that the Secret Service is on guard against counterfeit currency. You might not know, however, that it also keeps a one-of-a-kind International Ink Library with more than 11, specific writing ink fingerprints on hand.
The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a or by examination of offset ink transfers (caused by writing a document resting on.
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
Forensic document examiners are an essential part of the success of the forensic science community. Their main responsibility is examining written, typed, or printed documents using a scientific methodology and equipment. Their essential responsibilities go beyond evaluating different documents. They prepare demonstrative exhibits, write expert reports, and state their opinions regarding the documents which are being analyzed.
This means they testify in court proceedings if the case goes to trial. Forensic document examiners can be found in local, state, and federal crime laboratories.
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks. Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings.
Multiple inks can be chemically compared with each other to corroborate or refute whether the entries were created contemporaneously or produced over multiple periods of time. Forensic Analysis of Printers and Copiers. Ink analysis and dating can also be conducted on machine printed document such as inkjet ink and toner from photocopiers, laser printers, and facsimile machines. Forensic Paper Examination. Gerald M. LaPorte, M. He trained with and served as the Chief Research Forensic Chemist with the United States Secret Service and was responsible for maintaining the largest known forensic collection of writing inks in the world.
Ink dating….and the CSI effect
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Advances in the Forensic Analysis and Dating of Writing Ink [Richard L. Brunelle, Kenneth R. Crawford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Sauzier curtin. This paper presents a study into the potential of visible spectroscopy with chemometrics as an approach to dating blue ball tip inks on paper documents. Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those kept in the dark could still be matched to the source pen after 32 months of ageing.
Conversely, the majority of those exposed to light exhibited rapid spectral changes that continued throughout the 32 month period. Partial least squares regression PLSR was used to generate dating models for inks aged with exposure to light. Evaluation using an external test set found absolute dating to be challenging for these ink deposits within the first 2—6 months of ageing. However, predictive accuracy was found to improve for long-term ageing, with two-year old samples yielding age estimates with a maximum error of 6 months.
This rapid, non-destructive methodology could assist document examiners in the relative ageing or approximate age determination of questioned documents, as well as the identification of document alterations. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.
Global Forensic Services, LLC
Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.
Forensic scientists and legal professionals have dubbed this the “CSI effect” and in Forensic Document Examination its manifestation is in the area of ink dating.
Follow me:. About the Expert Offices: San Luis Obispo, CA-GFS is a private forensic lab, specializing in ink dating, forensic ink dating, ink age, questioned documents, fraud, forgery, art age determination, ink, paper, handwriting, fingerprints, counterfeiting, piracy, crime scenes, Daubert and court preparation. Full service document laboratory. We offer a first rate and on-call response to any investigative situation that you may encounter. Our commitment is to provide clients with effective, timely, cost effective services by use of experienced forensic and investigative teams.
We are a proud firm. We have successfully completed a myriad of forensic examinations and investigations for our clients, worldwide, for the past 35 years. Stewart has worked for the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During his career he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e. John Demjanjuk, a. Ivan the Terrible, the reinvestigation of the Dr. He has testified as an expert witness in state, federal and military courts of law, as well as in foreign court systems to include; Austria, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
What is a Forensic Document Examiner
Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.
Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written. When conducting examinations, forensic document examiners must have known specimens to which they compare the material in question. These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine.
Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by 1 Institute of Forensic Sciences, Bavarian State Bureau of Investigation, Munich.
One of the downsides of this however is that client expectations on what is possible in certain areas of forensic science often greatly exceed what can actually be done. Usually the enquiry involves a signature on a will or a commercial document. The signature itself may not be in dispute but the actual date of signing may be critical to the resolution of the matter.
Often the client believes that the document can be easily analysed to give an exact date the ink was placed on the paper. This testing has the disadvantage that the original document must be released to a laboratory, something that is problematic for many legal documents and potentially expensive for the client. Depending on the scientific method used, some results of such testing are of questionable value, and have been successfully challenged in court.
To determine the commercial availability of a specific ink based on its chemical constitution, ink reference libraries do exist, but they are generally the preserve of government agencies and as such are not available to the vast majority of professionals working privately in the FDE field. Other techniques offer more possibilities. Examination of the document as a whole may offer clues to its age. The type of print method used, typeface, paper, stamps or seals can be examined. If the document is a form or template, investigations can be made as to the version of such a template and what date it became available.
Headed paper may contain the names of company directors or company logos, both of which change over time. If enough comparison signatures are available from the individual concerned over a long period in time, then they can be evaluated to determine how these signatures may have changed over time. Some of these changes can be quite gradual and subtle in nature.